Knowledge from Olle Garden Bed: Mustard Seeds Planting

Mustard is one of the fail safe vegetables that anyone can grow and produce a bumper harvest. I always grow more than I need, so this year I decided to let some plants mature to grow mustard seeds. Yes, you are right! Mustard green vegetables produce mustard seeds and other green vegetables for your next cooking! The following content also has some reference value for raised garden beds.

Mustard is a very versatile crop. Mustard grown for seeds is usually allowed to be bolted, but before it is bolted, it can be grown as mustard green because the whole plant is edible. It can also be grown as a mustard green plant. Green vegetable is a cool weather pepper flavor, slightly bitter cut and re salad leaves, rich in antioxidants, rich in vitamins. It can also be planted as green manure or mulch crops to inhibit the growth of weeds and act as a biological fumigant when digging into the soil.

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Finally, when mustard plants bloom, they will produce mustard seeds, which are the key ingredients in mustard sauce, giving it its signature heat and spicy taste. The seeds can also be used to activate potatoes, vegetables and meat dishes as powdered spices, or to gently crack and add them to friction, marinades and curries. I am particularly looking forward to trying my own mustard recipe, including beer, port wine, honey, herbal medicine and strong black beer!

About Mustard Factory

Mustard is the common name of a series of annual plants in Brassicaceae of cabbage family, which are planted for their leaves and seeds. Several mustard seeds produce different colors and flavors, such as Brassica, Brassica, and Brassica. Mustard is a cool weather crop, believed to be adapted from wild radish and radish, originated in Western Asia and Europe.

The appearance of leaves and flowers varies by species or variety. Leaf mustard can be deep split sheet, frill or oval. It can be dark to light green, red or purple, making them an attractive complement to any salad bowl. Mustard plants often have yellow flowers, but sometimes they can be milky white. Flowers grow on tall spikes of 12 to 36 inches (30-90 cm). Long and thin green seed pods (about 1 inch/2.5 cm long) develop after flowering, and become light brown as they mature and mature. When the seeds are ready, the pods will burst, and if not managed, a slight invasion of plants will occur.

Mustard has a vigorous growth cycle. The seeds germinate in 5-10 days and grow rapidly to form a rose ring of basal leaves. As the plant matures, when the flowers are spent, the multi branched flowering spike grows from the base to produce pods. The time from sowing to harvesting is about 90 days.

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All parts of the mustard plant are edible. Leaves and flowers are used in salads and stir fry, and roots can be used as root vegetables, roasted, boiled or chopped. The seeds can be used for flavoring and fermentation, marinade, meat, vegetable and fish dishes, and for making the signature mustard.

Mustard is also a green manure dug in the soil in spring to add organic matter to improve soil structure and water conservation. As a mulch crop, mustard suppresses weed growth and protects bare soil from elements. As a member of the cabbage family, mustard should follow the rotation cycle of other Brassica plants, such as broccoli, broccoli and kale.

Types of mustard seeds

Mustard is the second largest spice in the United States after pepper. There are more than 40 varieties of mustard to try. Here are some of the main mustard seed types.

Brassica campestris: yellow/white mustard seed. This is mustard, mainly used for moderately spicy mustard. It has the mildest taste and the largest seed. This is the traditional "BallPark" mustard style yellow mustard, because yellow seeds and white seeds can be combined to produce gorgeous colors.

Brassica: The seed coat of brown mustard is deep, which is used to make Dijon mustard. It is also mixed with yellow mustard seeds to make English mustard or spicy brown mustard. Other common names for these brown seeds include Chinese mustard or Indian mustard. B. Juncea itself is used to produce Chinese hot mustard, but it is also called the real Dijon mustard because its spicy flavor will become mellow when mixed with wine. Red giant mustard is a kind of Brassica plant, which produces purple leaves in cooking and is very suitable for Asian green vegetables. Another popular breed is the Southern Giant.

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Black Brassica: Black mustard seed, smaller than other types. Black seeds have the strongest flavor among all mustard seed types. Occasionally, black mustard seeds will be mixed with yellow mustard instead of brown mustard seeds to make pungent mustard.

Plant mustard

Sow mustard seeds indoors in early spring, 4-6 weeks before the average last frost date, 1/2 inch deep (1 cm) in the cell tray filled with the initial mixture of seeds. If necessary, if you want to produce organic mustard plants, please select organic mustard seed varieties. The seeds should germinate within 5-10 days. Gently harden the graft and mustard seedlings for at least one week and plant outside after the last frost. This establishes tolerance to external conditions and reduces the risk of stress that causes the plant to be seeded. When plants are sown, they produce less harvest and taste milder.

Plants grown for seeds require more space than mustard. The space plants are 10 inches (24 cm) apart and the row spacing is 12 inches. After the last frost, sow the seeds directly on the prepared bed and thin the seedlings to 10 inches (24 cm) apart. More space means less competition for water and nutrients needed for seed production.

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Choose a sunny place and plant mustard in fertile and well drained soil. In warmer areas, it provides a little shade from the midday sun. Mustard grows well in a large and heavy container. When it grows high, it will have some support. The advantage of growing in containers is that the seeds can start indoors and move to the outside after the last frost to continue growing at a cool temperature and avoid increasing the heat in the greenhouse. Try the root bag growing bag or air tank stored in our store - or try both!


It's easy to grow mustard seeds. However, you should follow some care techniques to make the most of your crop.

Sun and temperature

Mustard likes to grow in partial shade under full sunlight. In hot climates, you may need to use a sunshade to keep plants cool and prevent bolting. Six hours of sunlight a day is enough to grow mustard in the USDA 2-11 area.

As a cold season plant, the ideal growth temperature range is 50-75 º F (10-23 º C), although plants may show signs of withering or tend to plant mustard seeds on the high-end of this scale. Mustard can tolerate slight frost, but it will be killed by the freezing temperature for a long time.

Water and humidity

Mustard is not drought resistant, so regular and continuous watering will reduce the risk of plant stress and bolting. Watering requirements depend on soil type and local temperature. As a general rule, aim for watering when the top few centimeters of soil are dry. Dry or hot periods may affect the taste of leaves and seeds. Plants growing in containers also need to be watered regularly to keep the plants in optimal condition. If the plants show signs of withering in warm weather, use the timed soaking hose, watering can or garden hose in the morning or evening.

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Plant mustard in fertile, fertile and well drained soil. Plants can tolerate poor soil, but may need supplementary feeding. Organic mulch is very suitable for improving soil fertility and helping to maintain water and soil temperature. The pH value of the soil varies from slightly acidic to slightly alkaline, which is enough to grow mustard.

apply fertilizer

Plants growing in improved soil do not need fertilizer until the first flowering stem appears. At this time, the plants are fed with balanced fertilizers to promote the yield of flowers and seeds. On poorer soil, plants are fed with liquid fertilizer rich in nitrogen in spring to promote leaf growth, and then balanced fertilizer is used after the plants are established.

Harvesting and storage

The key to harvesting large quantities of high-quality mustard is knowing exactly when to harvest and how to dry the seeds for storage.


In the early life of plants, you can harvest leaves regularly for fresh consumption, but when the weather starts to get too hot, the plants will bolt and start planting mustard seeds. At this point, leaves often become bitter and not so delicious, so be sure to visit your garden regularly in the right season to eat young vegetables.

Harvest seeds before they are fully mature. It is too late, the pods will burst, and the seeds will be lost (or at least you can sow them in your garden and create volunteer plants next year! The seed pods will mature from green to light brown, so you should carefully observe and choose the time suitable for your crops. Another sign that plants are almost ready to harvest is when the leaves at the base of the plants turn yellow.

To harvest, simply cut the stems and tie them into bundles. Hang upside down in a cool and ventilated place for drying. Make sure to tie a paper bag on the head of the seed to catch the seed when it is ripe and falling. Alternatively, the stem can be placed flat on a fine mesh or sheet to dry the seed pods.

Once the pods are completely dry, it is time to shake out the seeds. When the pod rolls in your hand, it should feel crisp and easy to release the seeds. Put the grape string in the bag or on the bathtub, and then thresh the seeds from the pod. The seed may contain a small amount of husk still attached to the pod. To remove it, slowly pour the seeds from one bowl to another in front of the fan. The small pieces will blow away, leaving clean, dry and fresh seeds. You may need to repeat this process several times.

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Fresh mustard leaves should be used quickly to get the best flavor, but can be stored in a bag in the refrigerator's fresh-keeping box drawer for a day or two.

The best mustard flavor can be retained by slowly drying the seeds at low temperature. If possible, dry the mustard seeds in a cool, dark but well ventilated place. Setting the dehydrator as a pure air circulation without heat is another excellent choice.

Store the whole dried mustard seed in an airtight container for up to 18 months. The ground mustard seed loses its flavor faster than the whole seed, so wait until you need to use it before grinding.


When planting mustard, there are some growth problems, pests and diseases that need attention, but nothing is difficult to deal with.

Growing problems

Plant stress is the main problem when planting mustard seeds. Pressure causes plants to enter the seeds, reducing the quantity and quality of harvest. Types of stress include high temperature, unexpected cold, inconsistent watering or lack of nutrition. To avoid embolism, try planting plants at a suitable time of the year for your residence, and always keep the soil slightly moist but not wet. Before planting, use rich organic matter to transform poor soil or supplement appropriate fertilizer.

Mustard plants grown for seeds can grow up to 3 feet (90 centimeters), making them vulnerable to wind. Once the flower head becomes tall and top heavy, provide a wooden pile or other plant support.


Young mustard leaves are often attacked by aphids (Aphidoidea), which are small and sticky, yellow, green, black, red or white pests, and feed on newly grown juice. Planting together with marigold or marigold will help prevent aphids and encourage beneficial insects to enter the garden to feed on them. Alternatively, spray with organic insecticide soap or neem oil. Squeezing aphids with your fingers or spraying water quickly can also help reduce the population.

Mustard leaves may be attacked by flea beetles. The flea beetles will chew holes in the leaves, making them ugly, and affecting the health and viability of the whole plant. The best form of defense is to use floating row coverings to prevent beetles from reaching the leaves. Mustard should also follow the rotation cycle of other crops of Brassicaceae. Spraying neem oil may also help.

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Mustard leaves are susceptible to powdery mildew if plants grow too close or lose their luster. It grows on leaves in the form of thick dust, inhibiting photosynthesis and hindering growth. Downy mildew is another disease that affects mustard, causing white spots in the upper and lower parts of leaves. Both of these diseases will seriously affect the health of plants and may lead to re infection in subsequent years. In order to avoid these diseases, maintain good garden hygiene, remove infected leaves as soon as possible, and rotate crops every year. Provide sufficient sunlight and good air circulation, and treat the affected plants with organic fungicides (such as sulfur or potassium bicarbonate).

common problem

Q: Can I grow mustard seeds by myself?

A: Of course! The mustard plant is easy to grow and can grow its edible leaves, seeds, roots and flowers.

Q: How long does it take to grow mustard from seeds?

A: According to the variety of mustard seeds you planted, the seeds can be harvested within 85-95 days.

Q: Can I grow mustard with mustard seeds?

A: Yes! Keep your mustard seeds and plant hot green vegetables in the next growing season.